How To Start Composting at Home: Turning Scraps into Soil

Composting is a great way to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden. By recycling organic materials that would otherwise end up in landfills, you can contribute to a more sustainable future while reaping the benefits of a healthy garden. Starting your own composting system at home may seem daunting at first, but with a little guidance and the right tools, you can easily turn kitchen scraps into valuable soil amendment. In this article, we will provide a step-by-step guide on how to start composting at home, so you can embark on this rewarding journey.

Step 1: Choose the Right Composting Method

Before diving into the world of composting, it’s important to consider the available methods and choose the one that suits your needs and space constraints. The most common methods include traditional composting, vermicomposting, and bokashi composting.

Traditional composting involves using a compost bin or pile in your backyard to break down organic materials such as fruit and vegetable scraps, yard trimmings, and coffee grounds. This method requires a bit more space and time, as it usually takes several months to a year for the materials to fully decompose.

Vermicomposting, on the other hand, utilizes worms to accelerate the decomposition process. This method is ideal for those with limited outdoor space, as it can be done indoors using a worm bin. Worms, such as red wigglers, feed on kitchen scraps and produce nutrient-rich worm castings, also known as vermicast.

Bokashi composting is a fermentation-based method that allows you to compost a wide range of materials, including cooked food, dairy, and meat scraps. It involves adding a bran-like inoculant to the organic waste, which speeds up the breakdown process. Bokashi composting is particularly useful for those who want to compost a variety of materials but have limited outdoor space.

Step 2: Gather the Right Tools and Materials

Once you have chosen a composting method, it’s time to gather the necessary tools and materials. Here are a few essentials:

1. Compost Bin or Pile: If you opt for traditional composting, you will need a bin or an area in your backyard to contain the organic materials. You can purchase a compost bin from local garden centers or create your own using wire mesh, wood pallets, or even repurposed containers.

2. Kitchen Compost Container: It’s convenient to have a small container in your kitchen to collect food scraps before transferring them to the outdoor compost bin. Look for a container with a tight-fitting lid and consider one with a carbon filter to minimize odors.

3. Garden Fork or Pitchfork: These tools are necessary for turning the compost. Turning helps aerate the pile and speed up decomposition by providing oxygen to the microorganisms responsible for breaking down the organic matter.

4. Brown and Green Materials: Composting requires a good balance between brown and green materials. Brown materials include dry leaves, straw, and shredded newspaper, while green materials consist of kitchen scraps, grass clippings, and fresh plant trimmings. Aim for a ratio of roughly 3 parts brown to 1 part green.

Step 3: Begin Composting

Now that you have your composting method and tools ready, it’s time to start composting! Follow these steps to get started:

1. Choose a Location: Place your compost bin or pile in a convenient location. It should be easily accessible and receive some sunlight, but not direct heat, as extreme temperatures can slow down the decomposition process.

2. Add a Layer of Browns: Start by adding a layer of brown materials to the bottom of your compost bin or pile. This will help absorb excess moisture and provide aeration for the pile. Shredded paper or dry leaves work well for this purpose.

3. Add Kitchen Scraps: Collect kitchen scraps such as fruit and vegetable peels, coffee grounds, and eggshells in your kitchen compost container. Once full, transfer these scraps to the compost bin and mix them with the brown materials. Remember to avoid adding meat, dairy products, and oily foods as they can attract pests and slow down the composting process.

4. Maintain Moisture and Aeration: Keep your compost pile moist, like a wrung-out sponge, to ensure proper decomposition. If the pile becomes too dry, add water. On the other hand, if it’s too wet and starts to smell, mix in additional brown materials. Regularly turning the pile with a garden fork or pitchfork will also help maintain aeration and speed up decomposition.

5. Be Patient: Composting is a process that takes time. Depending on the materials used and the composting method, it can take anywhere from a few months to a year or more for the compost to be ready for use. Patience is key, so trust in the natural processes and keep maintaining your compost pile.

Step 4: Troubleshooting Common Composting Issues

While composting is a relatively simple process, it can encounter some challenges along the way. Here are a few common issues and how to address them:

1. Compost Pile Smells Bad: A smelly compost pile is often a sign of too much moisture or a lack of aeration. Mix in brown materials, like dry leaves or shredded paper, to balance the moisture content. Turning the pile regularly will also help improve airflow and reduce odors.

2. Attracted Pests: Avoid adding meat, dairy products, and oily foods to your compost pile, as they can attract pests like rodents or insects. If you notice an infestation, cover the fresh kitchen scraps with a layer of browns or use a secure compost bin to keep pests out.

3. Slow Decomposition: If your compost is taking longer to decompose than expected, it may be due to an improper balance of brown and green materials. Make sure you are adding enough brown materials, which provide carbon, to balance the nitrogen-rich green materials. Additionally, ensure your compost pile is well-aerated by turning it regularly.

4. Excessive Moisture: Excess moisture can cause a compost pile to become soggy and anaerobic, slowing down the decomposition process. To combat this issue, add more brown materials to absorb the moisture and improve aeration. If necessary, cover the compost bin to protect it from excessive rain.

Achieving Success with Home Composting

Composting at home is not only beneficial for the environment but also for your garden. The finished compost, also known as “black gold,” can be incorporated into your garden soil or used as a nutrient-rich top dressing. By following the steps outlined in this guide and troubleshooting any issues that may arise, you’ll be well on your way to transforming kitchen scraps into valuable soil amendment.

To expand your composting knowledge, there are several resources and organizations dedicated to providing information and support. Check out the resources below for additional guidance on home composting:

– Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The EPA offers a comprehensive guide to composting, including tips on composting indoors, compost troubleshooting, and different composting methods. Visit their website at

– The Composting Council: The Composting Council provides a wealth of resources on composting, including publications, webinars, and a directory of composting facilities. Explore their website at

Remember, composting is a continuous learning process. Experiment with different materials, methods, and ratios to find what works best for you. Embrace the journey of turning your kitchen scraps into nutrient-rich soil, and enjoy the rewards of a greener and more sustainable lifestyle.