The 12 Most Famous Artworks at The Vatican Museums


The Vatican Museums, located within Vatican City, house an extraordinary collection of art and artifacts spanning centuries. Founded by Pope Julius II in the early 16th century, these museums showcase some of the most renowned and influential artworks in the world. From ancient sculptures to Renaissance masterpieces, the Vatican Museums offer an unparalleled art experience. In this article, we explore the 12 most famous artworks at the Vatican Museums, delving into their dimensions, locations, creation dates, genres, mediums, and periods to highlight their significance.

1. Sistine Chapel Ceiling

Sistine Chapel Ceiling

The Sistine Chapel Ceiling is an unrivaled masterpiece painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Covering a surface of approximately 5,000 square feet, it depicts nine scenes from the Book of Genesis, along with various prophets and sibyls. Located within the Sistine Chapel, the artwork is characterized by its breathtaking perspective and vibrant colors. This monumental fresco is an expression of Michelangelo’s unparalleled artistic skill, influencing generations of artists to come.

2. The Last Judgment

The Last Judgment

Adjacent to the Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Michelangelo’s The Last Judgment is another iconic piece of art that adorns the altar wall of the chapel. Painted between 1536 and 1541, this colossal fresco measures around 44 feet by 41 feet. It depicts the second coming of Christ, with numerous figures arranged in a complex composition that conveys a range of emotions. The Last Judgment showcases Michelangelo’s mature style, combining his deep understanding of human anatomy and a mastery of capturing human emotions.

3. Laocoön and His Sons

Laocoön and His Sons

Located in the Octagonal Courtyard, the sculpture of Laocoön and His Sons is one of the most famous pieces from antiquity. Created in the 1st century BCE, this marble masterpiece depicts a scene from Greek mythology, where Laocoön and his sons are attacked by sea serpents. Measuring approximately 8 feet high, it is a prime example of Hellenistic sculpture. The dynamic composition and intricate details of the sculpture exemplify the skill and technical expertise of the ancient artisans.

4. The School of Athens

The School of Athens

Located in the Stanze di Raffaello (Raphael Rooms), The School of Athens is one of the four frescoes painted by Raphael between 1509 and 1511. This masterpiece measures around 25 feet by 16 feet and is celebrated for its representation of philosophy. Depicting a gathering of notable figures from ancient Greece, such as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates, the fresco showcases Raphael’s skill in composing complex scenes and his ability to capture individual characteristics. The School of Athens remains an enduring testament to the ideals of the Renaissance.

5. Apollo Belvedere

Apollo Belvedere

The Apollo Belvedere, housed in the Octagonal Courtyard, is a prominent marble statue measuring approximately 8 feet tall. Created in the 2nd century CE, it represents the ancient god Apollo. This iconic sculpture exemplifies the idealized beauty and harmony often associated with Classical Greek art. The Apollo Belvedere has served as a source of inspiration for countless artists throughout history, embodying the timeless appeal of ancient mythology.

6. Stanze di Raffaello

The Stanze di Raffaello, or Raphael Rooms, are a series of four interconnected rooms within the Vatican Museums. They were painted by the renowned artist Raphael and his workshop between 1508 and 1524. These rooms served as the private apartments of Pope Julius II. Each room possesses its unique theme, with various frescoes depicting religious, historical, and mythological subjects. The Stanze di Raffaello demonstrate Raphael’s skill in storytelling and his ability to create visually stunning compositions.

7. Pieta

Created by Michelangelo in 1499, the Pieta is now located in St. Peter’s Basilica. This sculpture portrays the sorrowful Virgin Mary cradling the body of Jesus after his crucifixion. Constructed from a single block of marble, the Pieta exemplifies Michelangelo’s mastery of human anatomy and his ability to convey profound emotional depth through stone. The sculpture’s technical brilliance and spiritual intensity make it one of the greatest masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance.

8. The Transfiguration

The Transfiguration, painted by Raphael between 1516 and 1520, is considered one of his final masterpieces. Measuring around 13 feet by 9 feet, this oil painting is housed in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, one of the Vatican Museums’ art galleries. The Transfiguration depicts the dual scenes of Christ’s transfiguration on Mount Tabor and His disciples’ struggle to heal a possessed boy. This composition showcases Raphael’s ability to blend multiple narratives within a single artwork, and his attention to light and color lends the painting a radiant quality.

9. The River

Sculpted by Edme Bouchardon in the mid-18th century, The River is a marble artwork located in the Room of the Muses. It represents a reclining male figure symbolizing a river, accompanied by various allegorical figures. The sculpture, measuring approximately 9 feet by 5 feet, embodies the Neoclassical style of the period, blending mythological symbolism with a sense of naturalism. The mastery of composition and the exquisite detailing of The River highlight Bouchardon’s artistry.

10. The Entombment of Christ

The Entombment of Christ is an oil on canvas painting by Caravaggio, created in 1603-1604. Located in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, this artwork measures around 9 feet by 6 feet. Representing the moment immediately after the crucifixion, Caravaggio’s painting captures the poignant grief and anguish of those mourning Christ’s death. The dramatic lighting and the artist’s innovative use of chiaroscuro contribute to the emotional impact and realism of the scene, making it a quintessential Caravaggio masterpiece.

11. Apollo del Belvedere

Apollo del Belvedere, created in the 2nd century CE, is a Roman marble statue that resides in the Vatican Museums’ Octagonal Courtyard. Measuring almost 7 feet tall, this statue represents the god Apollo just moments before releasing an arrow. The sculpture exemplifies the idealized human form of the Classical period and represents Greek influence on Roman art. The Apollo del Belvedere showcases the skill of Roman copyists in replicating and adapting Greek sculptures.

12. The Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths

This 17th-century marble sculpture is located in the Cortile Ottagono, a large courtyard within the Vatican Museums. The Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths depicts a violent clash between mythical creatures and humans, derived from ancient Greek mythology. Created by an unknown artist, this dynamic artwork captures the struggle and chaos of the battle with remarkable intricacy. The sculpture stands approximately 5 feet tall and demonstrates the enduring popularity of mythological themes throughout art history.

The Vatican Museums house an extraordinary array of artworks that span millennia. These 12 famous artworks are just a glimpse into the immense treasure trove of art and history found within the museums’ walls. From Michelangelo’s profound mastery to Raphael’s storytelling genius, and from ancient Greek and Roman statues to mesmerizing frescoes, the Vatican Museums offer a truly immersive experience for art enthusiasts and history lovers alike. Plan your visit to the Vatican Museums and discover the rich tapestry of human creativity and expression that await you within its hallowed halls.


– Vatican Museums official website:
– Khan Academy articles on art history:
– Britannica articles on Vatican Museums: